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The census in Australia

New South Wales—Annual musters were held from 1788 to 1837 and the following survive.
1788: 26 Feb Convict return inc Norfolk Island Published: AJCP Reel 412
1788:
Jul to Sep
Marine officers muster Historical Records of New South Wales (HRNSW) Vol 2, pp415-419
1789:
from 5 Jun
Military muster Historical Records of New South Wales (HRNSW), Vol 2 pp432-435
1792 Muster State Library of NSW
Society of Aust Genealogists
1796 Muster State Library of NSW
Society of Aust Genealogists
1800 Muster Published: Musters and lists, New South Wales and Norfolk Island, 1800-1802 / Carol J. Baxter [ed]
1801 Muster Published: Musters and lists, New South Wales and Norfolk Island, 1800-1802 / Carol J. Baxter [ed]
1802 Muster Published: Musters and lists, New South Wales and Norfolk Island, 1800-1802 / Carol J. Baxter [ed]
1805: Feb General Muster [Norfolk Island] Published: Musters of New South Wales and Norfolk Island, 1805-1806 / Carol J Baxter [ed]
1806: Aug General Muster plus Land & Stock Muster Published: Musters of New South Wales and Norfolk Island, 1805-1806 / Carol J Baxter [ed]; The National Archive [London] HO 10/37
1811: Feb Muster inc Norfolk Island [Aug] Published: General Musters Of New South Wales, Norfolk Island And Van Diemen's Land 1811 / Carol J Baxter [ed]; The National Archive [London] HO 10/5, 10/42; AO reels: 4/1224 4/1233
1812: Aug Return - Norfolk Island Published: Population Book and Stock Book / State Records NSW AO ref: 4/1170

1814:
Oct to Nov

Census Published: General muster of New South Wales 1814 / Carol J Baxter [ed]
1816:
Sep to Oct
General muster State Library of NSW
1817 Muster State Library of NSW
National Library of Australia
Society of Aust Genealogists
1818 Muster State Library of NSW
1819:
Sep to Nov
General Muster State Records NSW AO ref: 4/1227, 4/1228
1820: Sep General Muster State Records NSW AO ref: 4/1221.1, 4/1221.2, 4/1232.1, 4/1249.1
1821:
Sep to Oct
General Muster State Records NSW AO ref: 4/1230, 4/1231
1822 Convict return Published: General muster and land and stock muster of New South Wales 1822 / Carol J Baxter [ed]; The National Archive [London] HO 10/36; State Records NSW AO ref: 4/1231, 4/1232.3, 4/1221.3-1221.6, 4/1220.1, 4/1218, 4/1219
1823 General muster Published: General muster list of New South Wales 1823, 1824, 1825 / Carol J. Baxter [ed]
1825 General muster Published: General muster list of New South Wales 1823, 1824, 1825 / Carol J. Baxter [ed]; The National Archive [London] HO series
1823 General muster [notebooks only survive] Published: General muster list of New South Wales 1823, 1824, 1825 / Carol J. Baxter [ed]; State Records NSW AO ref: 4/1221.7, 4/1223.3, 4/1223.4, 4/1218, 4/1220.2
1824 General muster [notebooks only survive] Published: General muster list of New South Wales 1823, 1824, 1825 / Carol J. Baxter [ed]; State Records NSW AO ref: 4/1222.1, 4/1222.2, 4/1222.5, 4/1222.6, 4.1222.7, 4/1223
1825 General Muster Published: General muster list of New South Wales 1823, 1824, 1825 / Carol J. Baxter [ed]; State Records NSW AO ref: 4/1222.8 - 4/1222.10, 4/1249.2; The National Archive [London] HO 10/19-20
1826 Muster State Library of NSW
1837 Muster of convicts inc Norfolk Island Published: General Return of Convicts in New South Wales, 1837 / ; The National Archive [London] HO 10/32-35
1844: Aug Muster of convicts - Norfolk Island Archives Office of Tasmania
Census returns on a colony-wide basis commenced from 1828...
1828: Nov Census inc Norfolk Island

Published: 1828 census and householders returns / NSW genealogical research kit [AO reels; 2506-2507, 2551-2552]; State Records NSW AO ref: 4/1238.1, 1238.2, 1239.1, 1239.2, 1240, 1241; The National Archive [London] HO 10/21-28
Available online at Ancestry.com.

1841: 2 Mar Census

Published: 1841 census, abstracts of householders returns / LDS Church [Illawarra District: Film 917873, Port Phillip District: Film 917874]; Index online at State Records NSW AO ref: X946 - X951, 4/1243, 4/1244
Available online at Ancestry.com.

1891: 5 Apr Census [collectors' books survive] National Library of Australia
State Records NSW
1901: 31 Mar Census [destroyed: householders' schedules: collectors' books survive] State Library of NSW
State Records NSW
Queensland—part of NSW until 6 Jun 1859 extended to current boundaries 23 Jun 1862
No census material survives
South Australia—part of NSW until 28 Dec 1836 extended west to current boundary 22 Jul 1861. [NT annexed to SA 1863–1911]
1841: 1 Jan Census State Records of SA
State Library of SA
SA Genealogy & Heraldry Soc
All names are on-line at this site.
Published: South Australia 1841 census / Graham Jaunay
Van Diemans Land—part of NSW until 14 Jun 1825 renamed Tasmania
1803 Muster State Library of NSW
1806: Aug Muster State Library of NSW
National Library of Australia
State Library of NSW
State Library of QLD
State Library of VIC
State Library of WA
1808 Muster State Library of NSW
1809: May General Muster - Derwent River Published: Land Musters, Stock Returns and Lists: Van Diemen's Land 1803-1822 / Irene Schaffer [ed]; The National Archives [London] CO 201/52
1811: Mar Muster Hobart Town and Port Dalrymple [Jun] Published: General Musters Of New South Wales, Norfolk Island And Van Diemen's Land 1811 / Carol J Baxter [ed]; The National Archive [London] HO 10/5, 10/42; State Records NSW AO ref: 4/1224 4/1233
1818: 7 Sep Muster of free persons - Hobart Town Published: The Forgotten Generation of Norfolk Island & Van Diemen's Land / Reg Wright; State Records NSW AO ref: 4/1235.2
1819: 11 Oct

General Muster - Hobart Town
Muster of Free Persons - Port Dalrymple

Published: Land Musters, Stock Returns and Lists: Van Diemen's Land 1803-1822 / Irene Schaffer [ed]; State Records NSW AO ref: 4/1235.2, 4/1235.3, 4/1235.4, 4/1235.6, X740
1820: 9 Oct Muster of convicts Hobart Town State Records NSW AO ref: 4/1235.7
1820: Nov General Muster - Port Dalrymple State Records NSW AO ref: 4/1235.8, 4/1235.9
1821: Oct Convict Muster - Hobart Town
General Muster - Port Dalrymple
State Records NSW AO ref: 4/1235.10
1822 Muster of free persons - Hobart Town The National Archive [London] HO 10/18
1823: Oct Convict return The National Archives [London] HO 10/45
1825 Convict return State Library of NSW
State Records NSW
1830 Muster of convicts State Library of NSW
State Records NSW
1832 Muster of convicts State Library of NSW
State Records NSW
1833 Muster of convicts State Library of NSW
State Records NSW
1835 Muster of convicts State Library of NSW
State Records NSW
1837 Census Archives Office of Tasmania: index online
State Library of NSW
National Library of Australia
State Library of NSW
State Library of QLD
State Library of VIC
State Library of WA
1838 Census Archives Office of Tasmania: index online
1841: 31 Dec Muster: register of convicts Archives Office of Tasmania
1842: 1 Jan Census Archives Office of Tasmania: index online
1843: 1 Jan Census Archives Office of Tasmania: index online
1846: Oct Muster: register of convicts State Library of NSW
Society of Aust Genealogists
The National Archive [London]
1848: 1 Jan Census Archives Office of Tasmania: index online
1849: Dec Muster: register of convicts State Library of NSW
National Library of Australia
The National Archive [London]
State Library of NSW
State Library of QLD
State Library of VIC
State Library of WA
1851: 1 Mar Census Archives Office of Tasmania: index online
1858 Census Archives Office of Tasmania: index online
Victoria—part of NSW until 1 Jul 1851
1826 Convict return AO Reel 903
1828: Jan Convict return AO Reel 903
1836: Nov Census free Persons & convicts Genealogical Society of Victoria
State Library of Victoria
Public Record Office of Victoria
State Library of VIC
1838: Sep Census State Library of Victoria
State Library of NSW
Public Record Office of Victoria
State Library of VIC
1841 Census Port Phillip State Records NSW
State Library of Victoria
Public Record Office of Victoria
LDS Church [Port Phillip District: Film 917874]
1844 Census Public Record Office of Victoria
Western Australia—Swan River Colony proclaimed 18 Jun 1829 never part of NSW except King George Sound ceded 1831 when boundaries extended to present
1829 Muster Swan River Battye Library
1832: 1 Jul Census Battye Library
Society of Aust Genealogists
State Archives of WA
1836: 1 Jan Census Battye Library
State Archives of WA
1837 Census Battye Library
1859: 31 Dec census Battye Library
Northern Territory—annexed to SA 1863-1911 since then a Commonwealth territory
1881 Census published fiche [GSNT]
National Archives of Australia
1891 Census published fiche [GSNT]
National Archives of Australia
1901: 31 Mar Census published fiche [GSNT]
National Archives of Australia

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